**PHYSICAL SCIENCE EXP Q3.1**

**TITLE:** DETERMINING SPEED

**DATE: **FEBRUARY 09, 2018

Distance and displacement are two quantities that may seem to mean the same thing yet have distinctly different definitions and meanings.

· Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion.

On a level surface, make a grooved meterstick by putting the two meterstick at a right angle to each other. To hold it, put some clay on both ends. Next, incline your meterstick by resting one edge on a pile of books or other items. It is important that the meterstick be stable and not slip during the course of your measurements. Place the 0 cm end of the ruler at the edge of a pile of books so that it makes a ramp. Then, measure the length of the ramp from this starting point to the ending point.

For the angle of elevation you have set, use the stopwatch provided to measure the time it takes the ball to travel down the incline. For each angle of elevation, make at least three measurements (3 trials) of the time. Record these measurements on the worksheet; later you will compute the average of the three trials.

After doing three trials, change the angle of your ramp. Again, make three trials of your ball for this new angle; recording each time on your worksheet. Compute the average of the three trials.

2 BOOKS

1 : : : :

2 : : : :

3 : : : :

Average : : : :

4 BOOKS

1 : : : :

2 : : : :

3 : : : :

Average : : : :

Questions:

* Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

**PURPOSE:**In this lab you will practice in measuring average speeds, and to get you thinking about average and instantaneous speeds.**BACKGROUND INFORMATION:**Motion is the action of changing location or position. The study of motion without regard to the forces or energies that may be involved is called kinematics. It is the simplest branch of mechanics. The branch of mechanics that deals with both motion and forces together is called dynamics and the study of forces in the absence of changes in motion or energy is called statics.Distance and displacement are two quantities that may seem to mean the same thing yet have distinctly different definitions and meanings.

· Distance is a scalar quantity that refers to "how much ground an object has covered" during its motion.

- Displacement is a vector quantity that refers to "how far out of place an object is"; it is the object's overall change in position.

**HYPOTHESIS:**If the location of the ball is higher, then its speed is greater.**MATERIALS:**meterstick, clay, ball (rubber), stopwatch

**PROCEDURE:**On a level surface, make a grooved meterstick by putting the two meterstick at a right angle to each other. To hold it, put some clay on both ends. Next, incline your meterstick by resting one edge on a pile of books or other items. It is important that the meterstick be stable and not slip during the course of your measurements. Place the 0 cm end of the ruler at the edge of a pile of books so that it makes a ramp. Then, measure the length of the ramp from this starting point to the ending point.

For the angle of elevation you have set, use the stopwatch provided to measure the time it takes the ball to travel down the incline. For each angle of elevation, make at least three measurements (3 trials) of the time. Record these measurements on the worksheet; later you will compute the average of the three trials.

After doing three trials, change the angle of your ramp. Again, make three trials of your ball for this new angle; recording each time on your worksheet. Compute the average of the three trials.

**DATA**2 BOOKS

**TRIAL DISTANCE TIME SPEED**1 : : : :

2 : : : :

3 : : : :

Average : : : :

4 BOOKS

**TRIAL DISTANCE TIME SPEED**1 : : : :

2 : : : :

3 : : : :

Average : : : :

**Average =**__(Trial 1 + Trial 2 + Trial 3)__**3****GRAPH:***Create a double line graph. One color for the speed in 2 books and another color for speed in 4 books (x-axis – trial; y-axis – speed).*

**RESULTS/ANALYSIS:**Questions:

- What is a reference point?
- What two things must you know to determine speed?
- How do you determine the speed of the ball?
- Write the formula for speed.
- What is the unit for distance in this activity?
- What is the unit for time in this activity?
- What is the unit for speed in this activity?
- Compare the average speed of the two elevations.
- Why do you need to get the average after having three trials?
- Write a situation where you can apply determining speed.

**CONCLUSION:*** Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

*This lab (experiment) investigated _______________. In order to study the problem I/we _______________________. My results showed ________________________, thus proving my hypothesis was ______________________. I believe the results are (accurate/inaccurate) because ___________________________. In order to further investigate this problem, next time I would _____________________________.*

- Don’t say that the purpose was accomplished and then say nothing substantially more. You must include data from the lab results to demonstrate that the purpose was accomplished.
- Don’t give the procedure again. Don’t list the data again. It was already listed in the data (chart, table, etc.). You are to discuss and draw conclusions from the data.

**PHYSICAL SCIENCE EXP Q2.1**

**TITLE:** DENSITY OF LIQUID

**DATE: **OCTOBER 19, 2017

For a given volume, the mass of the material is directly proportional to its density. Thus, a denser material is heavier for a given volume. In other words, a denser material has more mass for a given volume than does a less dense material.

For a constant mass, the volume of a material is inversely proportional to its density. Thus, a denser material occupies less volume than does the same weight of a less dense material.

Mass of Small Cup + Liquid (g) : : : :

Mass of Empty Small Cup : : : :

Mass of Liquid (g) : : : :

Density of liquid (g/mL) : : : :

Arrange, oil, alcohol and water in the order of decreasing density:

__________________>__________________>____________________

highest lowest

Questions:

* Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

**PURPOSE:**In this lab you will measure mass and volume using instruments of differing precision and then calculate the densities of a liquid.**BACKGROUND INFORMATION:**Why do objects that are the same size sometimes have different weights? The answer has to do with their*density.*An object's density is determined by comparing its mass to its volume. If you compare a rock and a cork that are the same size (they have equal volume), which is heavier? The rock is, because it has more mass. The rock is denser than the cork, then, because it has more mass in the same volume - this is due to the atomic structure of the elements, molecules, and compounds that make it up.Liquids have density, too. If you want to find out the approximate density of each, you can calculate it using this formula:*Density = Mass / Volume.*For a given volume, the mass of the material is directly proportional to its density. Thus, a denser material is heavier for a given volume. In other words, a denser material has more mass for a given volume than does a less dense material.

For a constant mass, the volume of a material is inversely proportional to its density. Thus, a denser material occupies less volume than does the same weight of a less dense material.

**HYPOTHESIS:**If the mass of the material will increase, then its density will also increase.**MATERIALS:**water, cooking oil, alcohol, graduated cylinder, triple beam balance, container, test tube, small cup

**PROCEDURE:**- Find the mass of an empty small cup. Record the mass in grams in the chart on the activity sheet.
- Pour 10 mL of water into the graduated cylinder. Try to be as accurate as possible by checking that the meniscus is right at the 10-mL mark. Then, pour the water in a small cup.
- Weigh the small cup with the water in it. Record the mass in grams.
- Find the mass of only the water by subtracting the mass of the empty graduated cylinder.
- Record the mass of 10 mL of water in the chart.
- Use the mass and volume of the water to calculate density.
- Record the density in g/cm3 in the chart.
- Follow steps 2–5 for alcohol and then oil. Be sure to measure the oil last because it does not rinse easily from the graduated cylinder.
- Then, create a density gradient by pouring the liquids slowly one by one in the graduated cylinder.

**DATA**

**Water Alcohol****Oil**Mass of Small Cup + Liquid (g) : : : :

Mass of Empty Small Cup : : : :

Mass of Liquid (g) : : : :

Density of liquid (g/mL) : : : :

**DRAWING:**Draw the density gradient of the three liquids.Arrange, oil, alcohol and water in the order of decreasing density:

__________________>__________________>____________________

highest lowest

**RESULTS/ANALYSIS:**Questions:

- Which liquid is the densest?
- Which liquid is least dense?
- Why does the alcohol float on the oil?
- Why does the water sink in the oil?
- Which liquid do you think will have the most mass?
- Which liquid do you think will have the least mass?
- Do the densities you calculated explain why liquids float and sink in one another? Explain.
- A lead has a mass of 167.5 grams. When it was placed in a graduated cylinder with 40.0 mL of water, the volume of water increased to 55.2 mL. Determine the density of lead. Show all your calculations.
- A maple syrup has a volume of 20 mL and mass of 13.7 g. Calculate the density.

**CONCLUSION:*** Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

*This lab (experiment) investigated _______________. In order to study the problem I/we _______________________. My results showed ________________________, thus proving my hypothesis was ______________________. I believe the results are (accurate/inaccurate) because ___________________________. In order to further investigate this problem, next time I would _____________________________.*

*Write a 50 word conclusion showing the difference between mass and weight.*- Don’t say that the purpose was accomplished and then say nothing substantially more. You must include data from the lab results to demonstrate that the purpose was accomplished.
- Don’t give the procedure again. Don’t list the data again. It was already listed in the data (chart, table, etc.). You are to discuss and draw conclusions from the data.

**PHYSICAL SCIENCE EXP Q2.1**

**TITLE:** MASS & WEIGHT INQUIRY LAB

**DATE: **JANUARY 27, 2017

Scientists define mass as the amount of stuff (matter) in an object. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force pulling on an object or is defined as the force of gravity between you and the Earth.

One triple beam balance and one 5 newton spring scale per group. Three or four objects to be massed and weighed.

1 : : : :

2 : : : :

3 : : : :

4 : : : :

5 : : : :

6 : : : :

Questions:

* Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

**PURPOSE:**In this lab we are going to be exploring the ways mass and weight are measured and the units (labels) for them. By the end you should be able to answer the all the questions. Pay attention to how the balance and spring scale work and the units they have on them.**BACKGROUND INFORMATION:**Scientists define mass as the amount of stuff (matter) in an object. Weight is a measure of the gravitational force pulling on an object or is defined as the force of gravity between you and the Earth.

__Mass is always constant__for an object and does not change, no matter where the object is in the Universe.__Weight may change__because it is determined by the amount of gravity being exerted on an object. One of the factors that affect gravity is mass. For example, the Earth has a greater mass than the Moon and therefore exerts a stronger gravitational pull. That is why the weight of an object on the moon is less than its weight on Earth. Since the Earth has six times the mass of the Moon an object’s weight on the Moon will be 1/6 of its weight on Earth.**HYPOTHESIS:**If I could take my balance and spring scale to the Moon, the weight of the objects would read the same and the mass would read differently.**MATERIALS:**One triple beam balance and one 5 newton spring scale per group. Three or four objects to be massed and weighed.

**PROCEDURE:**- Get your materials. Before you start to measure your objects you need to zero out you balance and spring scale as per the teacher’s instructions.
- Mass all of your objects and record the data on the data table below.
- Repeat using your spring scale.
- Make sure that you put the correct units on your data table

**DATA**

**Objects****Mass on Earth (g)****Weight on Earth (N)****Mass on the Moon (g)****Weight on the Moon (N)**1 : : : :

2 : : : :

3 : : : :

4 : : : :

5 : : : :

6 : : : :

**GRAPH:**Construct a double bar graph with Object on the x-axis and weight in Newton (N) on Earth and the moon along the y-axis. Use different colors to represent the Earth data and moon data on the same graph.

**RESULTS/ANALYSIS:**Questions:

- What instrument did we use to measure mass? Weight?
- Which measurement involved gravity?
- What would a bathroom scale measure?
- When you go to the doctor’s and they put you on their scale, are they finding your mass or your weight?
- If you found your weight was 475 N, what would your mass be? (Hint: 1 kg = 10 N.)
- Which measurement would change if you went to Mercury? Why?
- If you were given a quantity of known masses (paint cans, bricks etc), describe how you would find your mass.
- If an object had a mass of 0.216 kg on Earth what would its mass be on the moon? What would the weight of a 0.352 kg object be on the moon?
- If an object weighed 0.50 N on the moon what would its mass be on Earth? (Hint: this is a two-step problem – think about it!)
- Which would change your mass or your weight if you climbed to the top of a tall mountain? Explain why. (Hint: Gravity is affected by the distance between objects

**CONCLUSION:*** Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

*This lab (experiment) investigated _______________. In order to study the problem I/we _______________________. My results showed ________________________, thus proving my hypothesis was ______________________. I believe the results are (accurate/inaccurate) because ___________________________. In order to further investigate this problem, next time I would _____________________________.*

*Write a 50 word conclusion showing the difference between mass and weight.*- Don’t say that the purpose was accomplished and then say nothing substantially more. You must include data from the lab results to demonstrate that the purpose was accomplished.
- Don’t give the procedure again. Don’t list the data again. It was already listed in the data (chart, table, etc.). You are to discuss and draw conclusions from the data.

**PHYSICAL SCIENCE EXP Q1.1**

**TITLE:** METRIC MEASUREMENT LAB

**DATE: **NOVEMBER 03, 2016

If your hand is 3 inches wide, how many centimeters wide is it? Which metric unit is closest to the length of 1 yard? Performing a measurement means comparing an unknown physical (or chemical) quantity with a quantity of the same type taken as reference using an instrument. A measurement necessarily involves a reference frame and therefore units.

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. Measurements most commonly use the International System of Units (SI) as a comparison framework. The system defines seven fundamental units: kilogram, meter, candela, second, ampere, kelvin, and mole. The ampere is the SI base unit of electrical current. The candela is the SI base unit of luminous intensity. The kelvin is the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature. The kilogram is the SI base unit of mass. The meter is the SI base unit of length. The mole is the SI base unit of amount of substance. The second is the SI base unit of time.s

Part 1 LENGTH – Meterstick, Pen, Pencil , Chalkboard, Metric ruler, Classroom Door, Eraser.

Part 2 MASS – Balance, paperclip, rock, graduated cylinder, and various objects.

* Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

**PURPOSE:**To measure length & mass and to convert values from English to metric or metric to English.**BACKGROUND INFORMATION:**If your hand is 3 inches wide, how many centimeters wide is it? Which metric unit is closest to the length of 1 yard? Performing a measurement means comparing an unknown physical (or chemical) quantity with a quantity of the same type taken as reference using an instrument. A measurement necessarily involves a reference frame and therefore units.

Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events. Measurements most commonly use the International System of Units (SI) as a comparison framework. The system defines seven fundamental units: kilogram, meter, candela, second, ampere, kelvin, and mole. The ampere is the SI base unit of electrical current. The candela is the SI base unit of luminous intensity. The kelvin is the SI base unit of thermodynamic temperature. The kilogram is the SI base unit of mass. The meter is the SI base unit of length. The mole is the SI base unit of amount of substance. The second is the SI base unit of time.s

**HYPOTHESIS:**If I will measure the length, and mass in various described situations, then I can convert all values from metric to English system of measurement and vice versa.**MATERIALS:**Part 1 LENGTH – Meterstick, Pen, Pencil , Chalkboard, Metric ruler, Classroom Door, Eraser.

Part 2 MASS – Balance, paperclip, rock, graduated cylinder, and various objects.

**PROCEDURE:****Part 1 – Length.**Use either a meterstick or ruler to find the measurement of the following items. On one lab partner, find the linear distance of the following:**The other two people in the group should find the linear distance of the following:**__height, height of hand, foot, height of ear.__**Report your findings in inches, meters, centimeters, and millimeters.**__Length of chalkboard, height of chalkboard, height of classroom door, width of classroom door, Length of eraser, & width of eraser.__**Part 2 – Mass.**Zero the balance. Find the mass of the following items: 5 paper clips, 10 paper clips, rock, plastic figure, and graduated cylinder. Report your findings in grams, milligrams, and kilograms.**DATA**

**GRAPH:**Create a bar graph for length (items and linear distance in millimeter). Create another bar graph for mass (items and mass in milligrams)

**RESULTS/ANALYSIS:****Part 1 – Length**- Is the meter, centimeter, or millimeter more useful for measuring the length and width of the chalkboard?
- Which metric unit would you use to measure the thickness of a nickel? Why?
- How many millimeters are there in 1 m?
- How many centimeters are there in 1 m?
- Which unit of measurement is larger: one inch or one centimeter?
- How many centimeters are there in one inch?

**Part 2 – Mass**- What would you estimate the mass of 1 paperclip to be?
- Why shouldn’t you put the sand directly on the pan?
- How did the marked mass of each weight compare to your measured weight?
- What would the mass of 1 ml of water be?

**CONCLUSION:*** Restate your hypothesis and indicate whether you accept or reject it.

* EXPLAIN why you accepted or rejected your hypothesis using data from the lab.

(You can use this as your guide)

*This lab (experiment) investigated _______________. In order to study the problem I/we _______________________. My results showed ________________________, thus proving my hypothesis was ______________________. I believe the results are (accurate/inaccurate) because ___________________________. In order to further investigate this problem, next time I would _____________________________.*